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Information - INCO Terms
 

“Ex works" means that the seller fulfils his obligation to deliver when he has made the goods available at his premises to the buyer. In particular, he is not responsible for loading the goods on the vehicle provided by the buyer, unless otherwise agreed. The buyer bears all costs and risks involved in taking the goods from the seller's premises to the desired destination. This term thus represents the minimum obligation for the seller.

"FCA” (Free Carrier) means that the seller fulfils his obligation to deliver when he has handed over the goods, cleared for export, into the charge of the carrier named by the buyer at the named place or point. When, according to commercial practice, the seller's assistance is required in making the contract with the carrier (such as in rail or air transport) the seller may act at the buyer's risk and expense.

"FAS” (Free Alongside Ship) means that the seller fulfils his obligation to deliver when the goods have been placed alongside the vessel on the quay at the named port of shipment. The FAS term requires the buyer to clear the goods for export. This term can only be used for sea or inland waterway transport.

“FOB” (Free on Board) means that the seller fulfils his obligation to deliver when the goods have passed over the ship's rail at the named port of shipment. The FOB term requires the seller to clear the goods for export. This term can only be used for sea or inland waterway transport. When the ship's rail serves no practical purpose, such as in the case of roll-on/roll-off or container traffic, the FCA term is more appropriate to use.

"CFR" (Cost and Freight) means that the seller must pay the costs and freight necessary to bring the goods to the named port of destination but the risk of loss of or damage to the goods, as well as any additional costs due to events occurring after the time the goods have been delivered on board the vessel, is transferred from the seller to the buyer when the goods pass the ship's rail in the port of shipment.

"DES” (Delivered Ex Ship) means that the seller fulfils his obligation to deliver when the goods have been made available to the buyer uncleared for import at the named port of destination. The seller has to bear all the costs and risks involved in bringing the goods to the named port of destination. This term can only be used for sea or inland waterway transport.

"DEQ” (Delivered Ex Quay duty paid)" means that the seller fulfils his obligation to deliver when he has made the goods available to the buyer on the quay (wharf) at the named port of destination, cleared for importation. This term should not be used if the seller is unable directly or indirectly to obtain the import license.

"DDU” (Delivered duty unpaid) means that the seller fulfils his obligation to deliver when the goods have been made available at the named place in the country of importation. The seller has to bear the costs and risks involved in bringing the goods thereto (excluding duties, taxes and other official charges payable upon importation) as well as the costs and risks of carrying out customs formalities.

"DDP” (Delivered duty paid) means that the seller fulfils his obligation to deliver when the goods have been made available at the named place in the country of importation. The seller has to bear the costs and risks involved in bringing the goods thereto as well as the costs and risks of carrying out customs formalities. The duty is also paid by the seller (VAT paid / unpaid).

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